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Kipling was the recipient of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. While Kipling continued to write for the next two decades, he never again returned to the bright, cheery children's tales he had once so delighted in crafting. He published in 1886, his first collection of Verse, Departmental Ditties. He was born Joseph Rudyard Kipling on December 30 th , 1865 in Bombay, India to John Lockwood Kipling, a pottery designer and sculptor, and Alice Kipling. Kim (1901), about an Irish orphan in India, is a classic. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. While working in India, Rudyard Kipling published a collection of verse and several volumes of short stories, including The Phantom Rickshaw, all of which were well received by the public. Thereafter he returned to India to work as a journalist. In 1892 Kipling married Caroline Balestier, the sister of Wolcott Balestier, an American publisher and writer with whom he had collaborated in The Naulahka (1892), a facile and unsuccessful romance. He moved to England in 1889 and enjoyed a meteoric rise to literary fame, especially after the appearance of Barrack-Room Ballads (1892). Kipling was delighted to be around children—a characteristic that was apparent in his writing. When he finished he studies he went back to India and worked as a journalist. (His rehabilitation was attempted, however, by T.S. He received the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. Kipling’s pamphlets were very popular among the … The life of the youngest-ever winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, Rudyard Kipling, was filled with tragedy. The two men quarreled, and when Kipling made noise about taking his brother-in-law to court because of threats Beatty had made to his life, newspapers across America broadcast the spat on their front pages. He published the verse collection Departmental Ditties in 1886, the short-story collection Plain Tales from the Hills in 1888, and between 1887 and 1889 he brought out six paper-covered volumes of short stories. There was a … Mrs. Holloway was a brutal woman who quickly grew to despise her foster son. When the poet laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson, died in 1892, it may be said that Kipling took his place in popular estimation. As a result, in 1896, he and his family left Vermont for a new life back in England. But the journey across the Atlantic was brutal, and New York was frigid. Suffering from insomnia, he roamed the city streets and gained access to the brothels and opium dens that rarely opened their doors to common Englishmen. Thereafter, he wrote several books including the famous 'The Jungle Book'. Rudyard Kipling was a British author in the late 19th and early 20th century. But plagued with the same eyesight problems his father had, John was repeatedly turned down. He was dedicated as ever to his writing, something Carrie helped ensure. As much of Europe braced for war with Germany, Kipling proved to be an ardent supporter of the fight. When Kipling returned to England in 1889, his reputation had preceded him, and within a year he was acclaimed as one of the most brilliant prose writers of his time. The gentle Kipling was embarrassed by the attention and regretful of how his celebrity had worked against him. This association fostered Kipling’s imperialist persuasions, which were to grow stronger with the years. He traveled to America and wrote 'American Notes' about his experiences. Rudyard Kipling short biography Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, British India. Tolkien is an internationally renowned fantasy writer. Kipling's ashes were buried in Westminster Abbey in Poets' Corner next to the graves of Thomas Hardy and Charles Dickens. He was quickly filling the journals he worked for with prose sketches and light verse. Rudyard Kipling Biography - English Journalist, Short-Story Writer, Poet, and Novelist #RudyardKipling #biography #poet The news devastated the couple. The book's name had, in fact, come from Josephine, who told her father he had to repeat each tale as he always had, or "just so," as Josephine often said. Rudyard Kipling, in full Joseph Rudyard Kipling, (born December 30, 1865, Bombay [now Mumbai], India—died January 18, 1936, London, England), English short-story writer, poet, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, his tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Rudyard Kipling Biography Stories. Yet even as Kipling grew more rigid in his viewpoints as he got older, aspects of his earlier work would still be celebrated. A decade later, Kipling married Caroline Balestier and settled in Brattleboro, Vermont, where he wrote The Jungle Book (1894), among a host of other works that made him hugely successful. His work during this time included The Jungle Book (1894), The Naulahka: A Story of West and East (1892) and The Second Jungle Book (1895), among others. His tales enchanted girls and boys all over the English-speaking world. Kipling was the recipient of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. Even though he spent his early childhood in India he went to school in England. But nothing ever came of the search, and John's body was never recovered. Kipling’s father, John Lockwood Kipling, was an artist and scholar who had considerable influence on his son’s work, became curator of the Lahore Museum, and is described presiding over this “wonder house” in the first chapter of Kim, Rudyard’s most famous novel. Biography of Rudyard Kipling Rudyard Kipling, born in Bombay, India on December 20, 1865, is one of Britain's most famous writers, although his work never attracted the critical acclaim that writers like E.M. Forster, T.S. After spending … Sussex was the background of much of his later writing—especially in Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906) and Rewards and Fairies (1910), two volumes that, although devoted to simple dramatic presentations of English history, embodied some of his deepest intuitions. The biography contains the life history of popular writer, Rudyard Kipling. Kipling was the recipient of many honorary degrees and other awards. Elsie Bambridge (née Kipling; 2 February 1896 – 24 May 1976) was the second daughter of British writer Rudyard Kipling.She was the only one of the Kipling's three children to survive beyond early adulthood. Kipling was taken to England by his parents at the age of six and was left for five years at a foster home at Southsea, the horrors of which he described in the story “Baa Baa, Black Sheep” (1888). 1634 over the door—beamed, paneled, with old oak staircase and all untouched and unfaked.". On 22 October 1924, Elsie Kipling married George Bambridge and in 1938 they bought Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire's largest stately home. The job offered Kipling a good excuse to discover his surroundings. In 1902, the Kiplings bought a large estate in Sussex known as Bateman's. Although he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907, his political views, which grew more toxic as he aged, have long made him critically unpopular. Unable or unwilling to adjust to life in America, the Kiplings returned to England in 1896. In addition to Plain Tales From the Hills, Kipling published a second collection of short stories, Wee Willie Winkie (1888), and American Notes (1891), which chronicled his early impressions of America. This autobiography/biography was written at the time of … Over his last few years, Kipling suffered from a painful ulcer that eventually took his life on January 18, 1936. The English poet and story writer Rudyard Kipling was one of the first masters of the short story in English, and he was the first to use Cockney dialect (the manner in which natives of London, England's, East End speak) in serious poetry. But as was often the case in Kipling's life, good fortune was accompanied by hard luck. At the time of his birth, his parents, John and Alice, were recent arrivals in India as part of the British Empire. Around this time, Kipling's star power started to grow. Along with his younger sister, Alice, he reveled in exploring the local markets with his nanny. There, Kipling flourished and discovered his talent for writing, eventually becoming editor of the school newspaper. The turn of the century saw the publication of another novel that would become quite popular, Kim (1901), which featured a youth's adventure on the Grand Trunk Road. He described dreadful years of his childhood in his short story Baa Baa, Black Sheep. The property had been erected in 1634, and for the private Kiplings, it offered the kind of isolation they now cherished. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. We strive for accuracy and fairness. ACHIEVEMENTS Rudyard Kiplingworked very hard for the Newspaper for six years from 1883. His poems included “Mandalay,” “Gunga Din,” and “If—.” His children’s stories included The Jungle Book (1894) and Just So Stories (1902). Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He is most famous for his children's stories, including The Jungle Book and the Just So Stories. Author of. A decade later, Kipling married Caroline Balestier and settled in Brattleboro, Vermont, where he wrote The Jungle Book (1894), among a host of other works that made him hugely successful. To those who knew him, it was clear that Kipling never recovered from Josephine's death. Looks like something went wrong. His novel The Light That Failed (1890) is the story of a painter going blind and spurned by the woman he loves. Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian playwright, poet, author, teacher and political activist. In the winter of 1899, Carrie, who was homesick, decided that the family needed to travel back to New York to see her mother. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. For Kipling, India was a wondrous place. Rudyard Kipling is remembered for his stories and poems of British soldiers in India and for his tales for children. Rudyard Kipling's early stories and poems about life in colonial India made him a great favorite with English readers. It haunted Kipling for the rest of his life—but always as the glorious place celebrated in Stalky & Co. (1899) and related stories: an unruly paradise in which the highest goals of English education are met amid a tumult of teasing, bullying, and beating. 1887- Kipling joined the newspaper The Pioneer, Allahabad. His father was a professor in an art school. Rudyard Kipling: biography The British writer and poet Rudyard Kipling became popular due to his short stories and poems; his quotes and aphorisms continue to be relevant today. Childhood and youth . John Donne, leading English poet of the Metaphysical school, is often considered the greatest loved poet in the English language. He was educated in England but returned to India in 1882. He wrote tales and poems of British soldiers in India and stories for children. Health issues eventually caught up to both Kipling and Carrie, the result of age and grief. Rudyard Kipling Timeline: 1865- Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865. Following their wedding, the Kiplings set off on an adventurous honeymoon that took them to Canada and then Japan. When he died, two days before King George V, he must have seemed to many a far less representative Englishman than his sovereign. Kipling's books during his years at Bateman's included Puck of Pook's Hill (1906), Actions and Reactions (1909), Debts and Credits (1926), Thy Servant a Dog (1930) and Limits and Renewals (1932). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Rudyard Kipling is remembered for his stories and poems of British soldiers in India and for his tales for children. The Ballad of East and West. In 1907, Rudyard Kipling received the Nobel Prize in literature “in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author". Rudyard Kipling is an English writer born in 1865 in Bombay. In November 1887, Kipling became assistant editor at the … The works of Rudyard Kipling, who in 1907 became the first English writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize, have left a mixed legacy: Kipling is recog­nized for his extraordinary ear for language, his precise use of spare, vivid imagery, and his innovative plots and deceptively simple structure. Birkenhead's unofficial bio improved on it in 1978. They were eventually assembled into a collection of 40 short stories called Plain Tales From the Hills, which gained wide popularity in England. Rudyard Kipling was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. In 1926 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature, which only Scott, Meredith, and Hardy had been awarded before him. Between 1885 and 1888, Rudyard Kipling went to Simla each year for his annual leave and the town, which became a center of power in India for six months of the year, features quite strongly in his stories. The two appeared to be just friends, but during the Christmas holiday in 1891, Kipling, who had traveled back to India to see his family, received an urgent cable from Carrie. Readers repelled by a strain of brutality—even of cruelty—in his writings should remember the sensitive and shortsighted boy who was brought to terms with the ethos of this deplorable establishment through the demands of self-preservation. A third child, John, was born in 1897, after the Kiplings had left America. Rudyard Kipling was an English author famous for an array of works like 'Just So Stories,' 'If' and 'The Jungle Book.' His most successful novel was Kim (1901). George Orwell was an English novelist, essayist and critic most famous for his novels 'Animal Farm' (1945) and 'Nineteen Eighty-Four' (1949). In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature, the first Englishman to be so honoured. In this ballad, an Afghan chieftain named Kamal raids … He then went on to the United Services College at Westward Ho, north Devon, a new, inexpensive, and inferior boarding school. When he was five he was sent with his sister to board with a captain and his wife in Portsmouth while his parents stayed in India. The Stalky saga is one of Kipling’s great imaginative achievements. With few friends, he devoted himself to reading. He also encouraged his son, John, to enlist. These books give further proof that Kipling excelled at telling a story but was inconsistent in producing balanced, cohesive novels. Since Josephine's death, Kipling and John had grown tremendously close. Omissions? Adopting the role of the head of the household, she held reporters at bay when they came calling and issued directions to both staff and children. In 1902 Kipling bought a house at Burwash, Sussex, which remained his home until his death. Kipling revered the new home, with its lush gardens and classic details. "Behold us," he wrote in a November 1902 letter, "lawful owners of a grey stone, lichened house—A.D. He is best known for authoring 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings' trilogy. Rudyard Kipling was an English writer best known for the children's book The Jungle Book . His father, an artist, was the head of the Department of Architectural Sculpture at the Jeejeebhoy School of Art in Bombay. In 1882, Kipling returned to India. Alice (one of the four noted MacDonald sisters) was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Finally, Kipling made use of his connections and managed to get John enlisted with the Irish Guard as a second lieutenant. All the while he had remained keenly observant of the thronging spectacle of native India, which had engaged his interest and affection from earliest childhood. The Jungle Book (1894) and The Second Jungle Book (1895) are stylistically superb collections of stories. December 30, 1865 - January 18, 1936. In October 1915, the Kiplings received word that John had gone missing in France. He lauded British imperialism. {{-*error}} 0.0 based on 0 rates. In 1907, Kipling received a Nobel Prize for literature, the first English-language author to win the prestigious award. As a writer, too, Kipling flourished. In South Africa, where he spent much time, he was given a house by Cecil Rhodes, the diamond magnate and South African statesman. He died in 1936. British novelist William Golding wrote the critically acclaimed classic 'Lord of the Flies,' and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1983. Rudyard Kipling was born on December 30, 1865, in Bombay, India. Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images Rudyard Kipling is one of the best-known of the late Victorian poets and story-tellers. From 1883 to 1889, Kipling worked in British India for local newspapers such as the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore and The Pioneer in Allahabad. Left only with what they had with them, the young couple decided to travel to Brattleboro, where much of Carrie's family still resided. By the age of 11, Kipling was on the verge of a nervous breakdown. These were hard years for Kipling. Carrington's was the authorised biography, but that was published as long ago as 1955. Much of his childhood was unhappy. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907. The Kiplings were broke. His parents, although not officially important, belonged to the highest Anglo-Indian society, and Rudyard thus had opportunities for exploring the whole range of that life. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The writer’s life also generates interest in people: it was exciting and complicated. Bateman's, the house purchased by Rudyard Kipling in 1902, Burwash, East Sussex, England. The sights and sounds, even the language, which he'd believed he'd forgotten, rushed back to him upon his arrival. He was sent to stay at Southsea, England, for schooling, where he was ill treated, and his secondary education was at United Services College in Devon. Seamus Heaney was a renowned Irish poet and professor who won the 1995 Nobel Prize in Literature. Joseph Rudyard Kipling. 1878- Rudyard was sent to study at the United Service College at Westward Ho in Devon. The two men grew close and even traveled together to the United States, where Balestier introduced his fellow writer to his childhood home of Brattleboro, Vermont. Rudyard Kipling was an English author famous for an array of works like 'Just So Stories,' 'If' and 'The Jungle Book.' Besides numerous short-story collections and poetry collections such as The Seven Seas (1896), Kipling published his best-known novels in the 1890s and immediately thereafter. Among the latter were Soldiers Three, The Phantom Rickshaw (containing the story “The Man Who Would Be King”), and Wee Willie Winkie (containing “Baa Baa, Black Sheep”). In 1889, seven years after he had left England, Kipling returned to its shores in hopes of leveraging the modest amount of celebrity his book of short stories had earned him. Kipling received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature. William Butler Yeats was one of the greatest English-language poets of the 20th century and received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923. Please try to rate again. During the Japanese leg of the journey, Kipling learned that his bank, the New Oriental Banking Corporation, had failed. This was at the height of the "British Raj", so he was brought up by Indian nurses ("ayahs"), who taught him something of the beliefs and tongues of India. In 1926 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature, which only Scott, Meredith, and Hardy had been awarded before him. Reader in English Literature, University of Oxford, 1969–73. In his early years, Kipling lived with a foster family in England and discovered his passion for writing during his childhood. Eliot.) Considered one of the great English writers, Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on December 30, 1865, in Bombay (now called Mumbai), India. He soon got to know Balestier's family, in particular, his sister, Carrie. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Lewis Carroll was the pen name of Charles L. Dodgson, author of the children's classics 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' and 'Through the Looking-Glass.'. However, at the age of six, Kipling's life was torn apart when his mother, wanting her son to receive a formal British education, sent him to Southsea, England, where he attended school and lived with a foster family named the Holloways. He received the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. Kipling, perhaps feeling guilty about his push to make his son a soldier, set off for France to find John. He particularly adored the work of Daniel Defoe, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Wilkie Collins. Kipling seemed to adore his new life, which soon saw the Kiplings welcome their first child, a daughter named Josephine (born in 1893), and a second daughter, Elsie (born in 1896). Rudyard led an exciting life filled with journeys and interesting situations. Kipling made his home with his parents in Lahore and, with his father's help, found a job with a local newspaper. The family waited until Kipling was strong enough to hear the news, but even then, Carrie could not bear to break it to him, asking his publisher, Frank Doubleday, to do so instead. https://www.biography.com/writer/rudyard-kipling. A live-action/CGI version of the movie was later released in 2016, with direction by Jon Favreau and the vocal talents of Idris Elba, Ben Kingsley, Lupita Nyong'o and Scarlett Johansson. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Born in Bombay, India, Rudyard Kipling was educated in England, returning to India in 1882. His mother was Alice Macdonald, two of whose sisters married the highly successful 19th-century painters Sir Edward Burne-Jones and Sir Edward Poynter, while a third married Alfred Baldwin and became the mother of Stanley Baldwin, later prime minister. Kipling returned to India in 1882 and worked for seven years as a journalist. Kipling’s ideas were not in accord with much that was liberal in the thought of the age, and, as he became older, he was an increasingly isolated figure. The achievements of Rudyard Kipling lie in his literary contributions, which remain popular and oft-cited more than 70 years after his death. In 1926, he … As a poet, author, and recipient of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907, he published over 80 stories and ballads. Wanting to help his son enlist, Kipling drove John to several different military recruiters. Eliot, and William Butler Yeats enjoyed. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. He learned the language and, in this bustling city of Anglos, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and Jews, connected with the country and its culture. These connections were of lifelong importance to Kipling. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Published: 1889. A distraught and drained Kipling returned to England to once again mourn the loss of a child. Captains Courageous (1897), in spite of its sense of adventure, is burdened by excessive descriptive writing. 1889- He left the newspaper and moved to London. Ever after Kipling remained very aware that Americans were “foreigners,” and he extended to them, as to the French, no more than a semi-exemption from his proposition that only “lesser breeds” are born beyond the English Channel. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Rudyard-Kipling, The Victorian Web - Biography of Rudyard Kipling, British Library - Biography of Rudyard Kipling, The Nobel Prize - Biography of Rudyard Kipling, Poetry Foundation - Biography of Rudyard Kipling, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Rudyard Kipling, Rudyard Kipling - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). His support of English imperialism at first contributed to this popularity but caused a reaction against him in the 20th century. Kipling's work entered the realm of mass popular entertainment in the Disney film adaptation of The Jungle Book, a 1967 animated musical loosely based on the original tale. Kipling was a man of two worlds, somebody who was accepted by both his British counterparts and the native population. Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling (née MacDonald) and John Lockwood Kipling. In London, he met Wolcott Balestier, an American agent and publisher who quickly became one of Kipling's great friends and supporters. The same year he purchased Bateman's, Kipling also published his Just So Stories, which were greeted with wide acclaim. Kipling's solace came in books and stories. He vowed never to return to America. At Bateman's, Kipling found some of the happiness he thought he had forever lost following the death of Josephine. For days, the world kept careful watch on the state of Kipling's health as newspapers reported on his condition. Rudyard Kipling was born in India and spent his early childhood there. These convictions are not to be dismissed in a word: they were bound up with a genuine sense of a civilizing mission that required every Englishman, or, more broadly, every white man, to bring European culture to those he considered the heathen natives of the uncivilized world. Rudyard Kipling Biography, Stories, Books, Poems, Nobel Prize Kipling rushed back to England, and within eight days of his return, the two married at a small ceremony attended by American writer Henry James. In 1986, he became the first African to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature. Kipling's experiences during this time formed the backbone for a series of stories he began to write and publish. Most of his work celebrated the English Empire and its soldiers in India. Kipling did recover, but his beloved Josephine did not. Rudyard Kipling was born in India in 1865 and educated in England but returned to India in 1882. Alice, he wrote tales and poems of British soldiers in India and worked as a,... 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