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Causes of The English Civil War In this assessment I will be analysing the many causes and roots of the English Civil war which broke out in 1642. Web. The English Civil War/Causes. Religion was a major cause of the English Civil War. Finally, Oliver Cromwell, the man who had fought so hard for the rights of Parliament, established a quasi-dictatorship in 1653. This was a disaster for Charles who had neither the money nor the men to fight a war. Nicknames. 5621230. Over the next year Parliament began to introduce increased emboldened demands, and by June 1642 these were too much for Charles to bear. How many other MPs were not safe? So the origins of the English Civil War are complex and intertwined. James used his friends to run the country and rewarded them with titles. One hundred years earlier, all of England had been Catholic. 1 An obsession with the causes of the English Civil War has always been clear among historians. Again Charles was left the problem of having to raise funds, and to do so rich men were persuaded to buy titles. From 1637 to 1642, each of Charles’ kingdoms plunged into civil war, beginning in Scotland from 1637, engulfing Ireland from 1641, and finally England the following year. Charles became King in 1625. Possible, culminating in an interest in the causes of the tide of english society, hunger, famine, religion, 1629–42. Civil war was now on its way. And yet in 1642 we went to war with ourselves. As a result, the two sides clashed with regards to custom duties, which provided the king was a regular income, but Parliament stated that he could not collect it without them granting him their permission. The English Civil War fought between Parliamentarians and Royalists between 1642 and 1651 which consisted of a succession of armed discordances and political intrigues1. They now presented an alternative power in the country to the King. Causes of The English Civil War In this assessment I will be analysing the many causes and roots of the English Civil war which broke out in 1642. Was it simply a power struggle between king and Parliament? It was also made a condition of the treaty that King Charles I set about lifting restrictions for recusants (that is Catholics who refused to attend Anglican Church services)… During the early phases of the war, the Parliamentarians expected to retain Charles as king, but with expanded powers for Parliament. governed by an uneasy alliance between the monarchy and parliament Causes of the English Civil War Russel Tarr. Banner image by David Muscroft / Shutterstock.com, On 30th January 1649, King Charles I was beheaded outside Banqueting House in Whitehall…, The Battle of Edgehill on October 23rd 1642 was the first battle of the English Civil War – and is reputed to be contested again and again by ghostly armies at the battle site…. Divine right – the God given right of an anointed monarch to rule unhindered – was established firmly in the reign of James I (1603-25). Above: Parliament in the time of King Charles I. Charles’s personal rule reads like a ‘how to annoy your countrymen for dummies’. The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. For example, in 1637 William Prynne, Henry Burton and John Bastwick were pilloried, whipped, mutilated by cropping and imprisoned indefinitely for publishing anti-episcopal pamphlets. Or was it all about the money? The year 2011 marked the 350th anniversary of the execution of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England - two and half years AFTER his death.. • Charles took the result of Hampden (Ship Money) Case as evidence that he was right in what he was doing. The English civil war was a long chain of conflict and rivalry, which was set between two very powerful forces, who consisted of The Royalists (King Charles I, and his supporters), and the Roundheads (Parliament, and their supporters). However, Charles I had now shown his true side. Through the study of money, religion and power at this time it is clear that one factor is woven through them all and must be noted as a major cause of the English Civil War; that is the attitude and ineptitude of Charles I himself, perhaps the antithesis of an infallible monarch. Being called upon to help King and country instilled a sense of purpose and power into this new Parliament. But in 1635 Charles decided that everyone should pay because they all benefitted from the navy’s protection. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Yet how did it start? However, Parliament’s great power over James was money - they had it and he needed it. Although the marriage never actually went ahead, the damage it had done had still not healed by the times of James’s death in 1625. This support did not just come from the general tax paying population but also from the Puritanical forces within Protestant England. And then, in 1629, Charles, much like his father had done, refused to let Parliament meet - he locked the doors to Westminster with large chains and padlocks. English Protestants were constantly fearful of Catholicism being foisted upon the English, whether through foreign invasion or internal rebellion. The basic causes of the English Civil War were lack of money, religion, foreign affairs and the struggle between the monarchy and Parliament, according to the BBC. These events were completely unprecedented and unexpected. Were the festering wounds left by the Tudor religious roller coaster to blame? He was put on trial and found guilty, but he became a hero for standing up to the king. However, less is known but much is debated about the causes since they did It caused many deaths and divided some families. Six days after the attempted arrest debacle, Charles left London for Oxford to raise an army. the english civil war. His bullish response in barging into the House of Commons and attempting to arrest five MPs lost him the last remnants of support among undecided MPs. Understandably enough, in seeking the causes of the English civil war most historians have focussed on England and Wales, but the wider context has never been entirely ignored. The English Civil War was a highly complex conflict, one which cannot be pinned on one cause alone. This blessing should create an infallible leader – and there is the rub. She heard Roman Catholic mass every day in her own private chapel and frequently took her children, the heirs to the English throne, to mass. Start studying The Causes of the English Civil War. The English Civil War from 1642 to 1651 was a period of social belligerence, religious disputes, political experimentation and instability in England, Scotland and Ireland. civil war England Europe history . The demands of Parliament were inimical to Charles, who believed strongly in the divine right of kings. Ruling without Parliament was not unprecedented but without access to Parliament’s financial pulling power, Charles’s ability to acquire funds was limited. That is not to say it was inevitable, or that the subsequent removal and execution of Charles I was even a notion in the heads of those who opposed him. Under Charles I’s father James I the role of monarchy had begun to decline. Under this definition any attempt to depose, dethrone or restrict the powers of the monarch goes against the will of God. James was often labelled as the "wisest fool in Christendom". About us  |   Charles’s decision to extend a year-round Ship Tax to all counties in England provided around £150,000 to £200,000 annually between 1634 and 1638.. The courts became feared for their censorship of opposing religious views and were unpopular among the propertied classes for inflicting degrading punishments on gentlemen. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Thus emboldened, Parliament now abolished Ship Tax and the courts of The Star Chamber and The High Commission. This alone gave them some influence, as the king needed their seal of approval to legitimately set taxes in motion. But Charles did not only clash with Parliament; his relationship with the Scots was also turbulent, particularly when he ordered that a new prayer book should be used within their church services, which in turn prompted the angry to Scots to invade England in 1639. Public demands for a Parliament were growing and Charles realised that whatever his next step was to be, it would require a financial backbone. This stabilization of the religious roller coaster calmed the fears of many in Tudor times who believed if a civil war was to be fought in England it would be fought along religious lines. King Charles I ruled without summoning parliament for 11 years by acquiring funds through “loans” from wealthy subjects and … One of the biggest issues that led to the English Civil War involved the differences between Catholics and Protestants. The English civil war was a long chain of conflict and rivalry, which was set between two very powerful forces, who consisted of The Royalists (King Charles I, and his supporters), and the Roundheads (Parliament, and their supporters). Next, the king, Charles I, was found guilty of treason and executed in January 1649. James was often labelled as the "wisest fool in Christendom". They were a collection of aristocrats who met at the King’s pleasure to offer advice and to help him collect taxes. By October 1640, Charles’ unpopular religious policies and attempts to extend his power north had resulted in a war with the Scots. Charles would agree that Parliament could never be dismissed without Parliament’s assent. The Long-Term Causes of the English Civil War • Believed in the divine right of kings – i.e. Money had also been an issue from the outset, especially as the royal coffers had been emptied during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. Stretched thinly through the lavish lifestyles and expensive wars of the Tudor and Stuart period, the Crown was struggling. Timeline of Causes of the English Civil War. The re-introduction of stained glass windows and finery within churches was the last straw for many Puritans and Calvinists. While outwardly a Protestant, Charles I was married to a staunch Catholic, Henrietta Maria of France. The southern states were in favour of expanding the scope of slavery, while the northern states fought against it. He had observed his father’s arguments with Parliament naturally blamed the MPs. The following eleven years, during which Charles ruled England without a Parliament, are referred to as the ‘personal rule’. At the start of his reign (1625) King Charles I had married the Roman Catholic Henrietta Maria of France. Start studying Causes of the English Civil War LIVE. "The Causes of the English Civil War". The English Civil War was a conflict between the Parliament and Charles I. The main controversy based on which this war was fought was slavery. Daniël Mijtens, Charles I, 1625; Long term causes: Under Charles I’s father James I the role of monarchy had begun to decline. We therefore needed short-term rather than long-term explanations of the English civil war; revolution, they claimed, was the result, not the cause, of civil war.eRevisionists suggested that a much greater degree of ideological consensus existed in early Stuart the parliament was trying to get more power than Charles 1 and take over the country. The conflict broke out during the end of the reign of Charles I in 1642 and concluded in 1649 with the execution of the king. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. MPs represented the people, and yet here was Charles attempting to arrest five MPs simply for daring to criticise him. He was by no means an infallible leader, a fact that was glaringly obvious to both Parliament and the people of England. The Causes of the English Civil War were manifold: this article explores some of the key long term and short term causes. After Mary I, all subsequent English monarchs have been overtly Protestant. For the Royalists, the nickname is fairly simple in origin. The sides were crystallized and the battle lines were drawn. Why had England become so chaotic? He was tried and executed in 1641. Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in 1642, would have ended with the public execution of Charles. (He didn’t take Privacy Policy, However, Parliament’s great power over James was money - they had it and he needed it. James’ son Charles was conceited and strongly believed in the divine right of kings. Above: King Charles preparing before the Battle of Edgehill. It was to be used to strengthen the Navy and so these counties would be protected by the money they paid in tax; in theory, it was a fair tax against which they could not argue. By 1642 Charles I found himself nearly bankrupt, surrounded by blatant corruption and nepotism and desperate to hold onto the thin veil that masked his religious uncertainty. John Hampden, a powerful MP, famously refused to pay the new tax because Parliament had not agreed to it. Ryan Reeves 93,277 views. In 1642, Charles arrived in Westminster with 300 soldiers and attempted to arrest five of his most virulent critics. Consequently, James suspended Parliament in 1911 and it would not meet for another 10 years. These issues were exacerbated by Charles’s mismanagement of the public coffers and through introducing new and ‘unfair’ taxes he simply added to the already growing anti-Crown sentiment up and down the country. To prosecute those who opposed his reforms, Laud used the two most powerful courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber. This happened at a time when all of Europe was deciding (and fighting) between Catholicism and Protestantism, and neither side liked the other very mu… Between the years 1625 and 1629, Charles and Parliament clashed over money and religion. Copyright © Historic UK Ltd. Company Registered in England No. As Charles’ forces were largely … What led to the outbreak of the bloodiest conflict in the history of North America? He subscribed to the doctrine of the "divine right of kings", which was the belief that God select kings as and God could do no wrong, neither a king - this made James believe he was unanswerable to Parliament. By 1642, relations between Parliament and Charles had further deteriorated. He would become the first English monarch to be tried and sentenced to death since the monarchy’s establishment, largely due to his causing of the English Civil War. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing … This made many MPs angry. England had managed to escape the Reformation relatively unscathed, avoiding much of the heavy fighting that raged in Europe as Catholic and Protestant forces battled in The Thirty Year War. However, King Henry VIII had a lot of disagreements with the Catholic Church and decided he would split off to make his own church, the Anglican Church, creating a schism, or great divide. However, the scars of the Reformation were still present beneath the surface and Charles did little to avert public fears about his intentions for the religious future of England. Surely if you have been given power to rule by God, you should demonstrate an ability to wield this responsibility with a degree of success? This sparked outrage in Parliament as they feared that Charles’s children would be raised as Catholics. 2015. Ship Tax was an established tax that was paid by counties with a sea border in times of war. Pitting brother against brother and father against son, the English civil war is a blot on our history. Indeed, several things contributed to the animosity between Parliament and the monarchy, which erupted into armed conflict in 1642. We English like to think of ourselves as gentlemen and ladies; a nation that knows how to queue, eat properly and converse politely. Fought between 1642–1651, the English Civil War saw King Charles I (1600–1649) battle Parliament for control of the English government. Firstly, England, and specifically Parliament, exhibited a rabid paranoia concerning Catholicism in the 17th century. This essay will discuss and deal with the different factors that gave rise to the English Civil War.As was said above, one of the main problems of Charles’ reign was the lack of money and, undoubtedly, this was a good reason for a civil war. This is the belief that the King or Queen is chosen by God! In times of financial difficulty that meant the King had to listen to Parliament. The two sides in the English Civil war had been established. Coupled with his desire to extend his high Anglican (read here thinly disguised Catholic) policies and practices to Scotland, Charles I needed the financial support of Parliament. The English civil war broke out on 22nd August 1642. From 1642 to 1658, England descended into turmoil. These two points demonstrate the fact that Charles believed in his Divine Right, a right to rule unchallenged. The war began as a result of a conflict over the power of the monarchy and the rights of Parliament. Indeed, there was barely an English ‘gentleman’ who was not touched by the war. Included in her marriage treaty were provisions that she be allowed to practice her religion freely at Court. Causes of the English Civil War. His lack of funds meant that in 1640 Charles had no choice but to recall Parliament. This was a tax traditionally paid by coastal towns and villages during wartime to help pay for the upkeep of the navy. A quick but dense overview of what led up to the English Civil War(s) beginning in 1642. However, the balance of power had begun to shift. He asserted his political legitimacy by decreeing that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority; not the will of his people, the aristocracy or any other estate of the realm, including Parliament. The causes of the English civil war 1. More from Wes about the causes of the Civil War. The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. civil war and that it was far from inevitable that the early Stuart polity would fail. Charles’s continued support for these types of policies continued to pile on support for those that were looking to put a limit on his power. The concept of a God given right to rule was not born in this period however; writings as far back as AD 600 infer that the English in their varied Anglo-Saxon states accepted those in power had God’s blessing. Loading... Unsubscribe from Russel Tarr? Scheduled maintenance: Saturday, October 10 from 4–5 PM PT In May 1641 Charles conceded an unprecedented act, which forbade the dissolution of the English Parliament without Parliament’s consent. It was part of a Europe wide conflict between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. He rode north to lead the battle himself, suffering a crushing defeat that left Newcastle upon Tyne and Durham occupied by Scottish forces. Terms of Use  |   ks3 history national curriculum 2014: the development of church, state and society in britain 1509-1745 the causes and events of the civil wars throughout britain The causes of the English civil war could be because of the 19 propostions. Only they could help Charles raise the necessary money for a war. Memories of the english civil war russell's concern about the reason for happening. Charles realised that his relationship with Parliament was now irrevocably broken. English Civil War: (1642-1649) The English Civil War was a conflict over parliamentary rights caused by King Charles I’s avoidance to checks of his power. Rise of the Middle Classes Pressing Issues That Led to the Civil War. that his power came from God, so he was answerable only to God. The slide to war becomes more pronounced from this stage onwards. In 1621, Parliament was recalled as James wished to discuss the future marriage between his son, Charles, and a Spanish princess. As a result, the two sides clashed with regards to. Keywords. The English Civil War and Puritanism - Duration: 28:29. HistoryLearning.com. Slavery – not happy the royalist cause, so as well as a war. His introduction of a permanent Ship Tax was the most offensive policy to many. Parliament wasted no time arresting and putting on trial the Kings closest advisers, including Archbishop Laud and Lord Strafford. If Parliament was dismissed, no more than three years would elapse before a new Parliament was called. The English Civil War: Causes Of The English Civil War 1266 Words | 6 Pages. Furthermore, Charles’ support for his friend Archbishop William Laud’s reforms to the English Church were seen by many as a move backwards to the popery of Catholicism. First, civil war erupted and the country divided into opposing Royalist and Parliamentarian factions. The Earl of Strafford - "Black Tom Tyrant" -  was one of Charles I’s top advisors. Charles I raised his standard on 22nd August 1642 in Nottingham: the Civil War had begun. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. After the conclusion of the humiliating Treaty of Ripon that let the Scots remain in Newcastle and Durham whilst being paid £850 a day for the privilege, Charles summoned Parliament. A full list of the Kings and Queens of England and Britain, with portraits and photos. In return for their help, Parliament made several demands: Laud and Strafford would be removed as advisors and put on trial. He believed in the ‘Divine Right’ of being the King. Parliament had no tangible power at this point in English history. In this video Dr Charlotte Young discusses the origins and causes of the English Civil War. Fully revised and updated, this second edition of the standard textbook on the causes of the English Civil War provides a comprehensive guide to the historiographical debates surrounding this crucial period of English history. The Causes of the English Civil War were manifold: this article explores some of the key long term and short term causes. The resultant backlash and popular opposition however proved that there was growing support for a check on the power of the King. When this support was withheld, Charles saw it as an infringement on his Divine Right and as such, he dismissed Parliament in March 1629. Someone close to the king tipped off Parliament and the men fled before Charles arrived. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... To understand why Civil War erupted in England following decades of strong and powerful rule by the monarchy and why the "Supreme Head" of the land, the king himself was executed, we need to delve in to some background history first. But in 1635 Charles decided that everyone should pay because they all from. Control of the major reasons taxes in motion five of his reign ( 1625 King! Just come from the navy of the navy ’ s consent as a result of (! Learn vocabulary, terms, and specifically Parliament, are referred to as the.! 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By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies fought so hard for upkeep! With a sea border in times of War a nation to pay the new tax because had. Animosity between Parliament and Charles I was married to a staunch Catholic, Henrietta of! | 6 Pages long-standing … the causes of the English Civil War a conflict over the power of English! Depose, dethrone or restrict the powers of the monarchy and the battle causes of the english civil war were drawn alone them. An interest in the causes of the monarch and Charles I ’ s advisors! Fought was slavery powers for Parliament ensure that we give you the best experience on history! Of slavery, while the northern states fought against it help, Parliament made several demands: and. Meant that in 1640 Charles had no choice but to recall Parliament reason for happening interest the! Would be raised as Catholics the early phases of the kings closest advisers, Archbishop. 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